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Index

        Note: Page numbers of articles titles are in boldface type.

        A

        Anemia, preoperative, and hip fracture, 375, 376
        Anorexia, alterations in nutritional status in, 317
         and cachexia therapy, functional assessment of (FAACT), 319
         assessment of management of, 318–319, 320
         chronic low-grade inflammation and, 317
         cognitive impairment and, 318
         depression and, 318
         gastrointestinal muscular tone and, 316
         medications review in, 317
         nutritional counseling in, 316
         of aging, 315–323
        treatment options for, 320–321
         risk factors for, 317–318
         social factors causing risk of malnutrition and, 318
         taste and smell alterations and, 316
        Anorexia/nutrition care pathway, 320

        B

        Brain, neurotoxic ß-amyloid accumulation in, cognitive frailty and, 346

        C

        Cachexia, muscle loss in, 309
        Cachexia therapy, anorexia and, functional assessment of (FAACT), 319
        Cardiac disorders, in depression, 388
        Cognition, and frailty, relationship between, 341
        Cognitive decline, age-related, 325
        Cognitive frailty, 339–355
         approach to, 340–341
         cardiovascular risk factors for, 341–345
         controversy concerning, 348–349
         depression and, 347
         hormonal changes involved in, 346
         inflammation and, 346
         lifestyle and mental health issues in, 347
         mechanisms of, 341–347
         neurotoxic ß-amyloid accumulation in brain and, 346
         nigral neuronal loss and, 346–347
         nutrition as influence on, 345–346
         prevention of, 348
         proposed definition of, 340
         tools to measure, 347–348
        Cognitive function, and frailty, association between, 342–344
        Cognitive impairment, and anorexia, 318
         and frailty, link between, history of, 340–341, 345
         mild, 325–337
        amnestic, 325
        characteristics of, 325, 326
        depression causing, 328
        early diagnosis of, 332
        epidemiology of, 326–327
        imaging studies and biomarkers in, 331–332
        in obstructive sleep apnea, 328
        lifestyle modifications in, 333
        metabolic deficiencies causing, 328
        nonamnestic, 325
        pathophysiology of, 327
        polypharmacy causing, 328
        progression to dementia, 332
        reversible causes of, 327–328
        risk factors for, 327
        screening and diagnosis in, 329
        screening instruments in, 329–331
        treatment of, 332–333
        Cognitive screen, rapid, 434

        D

        Delirium, attention and, 397
         awareness of, future of, 408–409
         causes of, 398–399, 400
         cognitive changes in, neuropathophysiology hypotheses of, 399–400
         cognitive processes for, 396–398
         consciousness and, 396–397
         consequences of, 394, 396
         definition of, 394
         diagnosis of, and screening for, 396–398
         dissecting of, 393–413
         ignored by health care, 396
         phenotypes of, 394
         phenotypic categorical models of, 395
         placebo-controlled intensive care unit studies in, 401, 403
         placebo-controlled trials in, 401, 402
        randomized, 401, 404–405
         prevalence and incidence of, 394, 395
         prevention of, and treatment of, nonpharmacologic, 406–408
        pharmacologic, 400–405
        in people in institutional long-term care, 406–408
        multicomponent nonpharmacologic, 406, 407
        single component nonpharmacologic, 406
         with arousal, screening for, 398
        Delirium screening, “rapid,” 397–398, 399
        Dementia, end-of-life care and palliative care in, 422, 423
         progression of mild cognitive impairment to, 332
        DEMENTIAS mnemonic, 434
        Depression, and anorexia, 318
         and cognitive frailty, 347
         assessing of, challenges in, 385
         cardiac comorbidities in, 388
         causing mild cognitive impairment, 328
         diagnosis of, strategies to improve reliability of, 385
         endocrine disorders in, 388
         medical comorbidities in, 388, 389
         medication-induced, 387–388
         neurologic or psychiatric comorbidities in, 388–389
         screening for, in clinical encounter, 384–385
        in waiting room, 384
         with psychotic symptoms, 386–387
        Depression assessment, rapid, in geriatric patients, 383–391
        Disability, and frailty, relationship between, 295

        E

        End-of-life care, and palliative care, advantages of, 417
        and signs of dying process in, 420, 421
        dementia and, 422, 423
        determining life expectancy during, 420–422
        integrating of, in geriatric assessment, 415–429
        prognostic indicators in, 420, 422
        prognostication in, 417–419
        quality of, challenges to, 427
        quality of death in, 417
        scope and definition of, 416, 420
        shared decision-making in, 416
        transition from curative care to, 419, 420
         clinical care in, 425–427
        Endocrine disorders, in depression, 388

        F

        Falls, cognition and mood disorders and, 360
         comprehensive physical examination in, 363
         fracture risk assessment in, 362–363
         frailty, nutrition, oral health, 360
         home and environmental assessment in, 364
         in aging population, 357–368
         in gait, balance, and neurologic impairment, 360–361
         in sensory impairment, 359
         laboratory and imaging investigations in, 364
         medications review and, 363
         nutrition, appetite, and sarcopenia assessment in, 362
         orthostatic hypotension and, 361
         prevalence, location, and consequences of, 358–359
         prevention of, interventions for, 364
         risk factors for, 359–361
         risk of, high, 362–364
        low, 361
        screening and assessment of, 361–364
         sedentary behavior and, 360
         Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT) and, 362
        FRAIL acronym, 296–297
        FRAIL screening test, 432
        Frailty, and cognition, relationship between, 341
         and cognitive function, association between, 342–344
         and cognitive impairment, link between, history of, 340–341, 345
         and disability, relationship between, 295
         assessment of, 295–297
         cognitive. See Cognitive frailty.
         concept of, in geriatric medicine literature, 294
         definition of, 293, 294, 295
         in older persons, 293–303
         management of, 297–299
        natural course of, 300
        specific issues in, 299–300
         related to sarcopenia, 308–309
         scientific publications on, 294
        Frailty Index, 296, 363
        Frailty phenotype, 295–296
         physical, 432–433

        G

        Geriatric assessment, quality palliative and end-of-life care, integrating of, 415–429
         rapid, 431–440
        advance directives and, 434

        H

        Hip fracture, cognition assessment in, 370–371
         comorbidities and frailty in, 372–373
         high-risk cardiac conditions and, 370
         history taking in, 370
         imaging in, 375, 376
         medication review in, 373–374
         mortality and morbidity due to, indicators of, 375–377
         nutrition assessment in, 372
         physical examination and pain assessment in, 371
         preoperative anemia and, 375
         preoperative assessment in, 369–376, 377
         preoperative investigations and, 374–375
         rapid geriatric assessment of, 369–382
         surgical risk in, 372
         timing of surgery in, 370
         vital signs assessment in, 371
        Hormonal changes, and cognitive frailty, 346

        I

        Inflammation, and cognitive frailty, 346
         low-grade, anorexia and, 317
        INTER-FRAIL instrument, 297

        M

        MEALS-ON-WHEELS, 433
        Medications, inducing depression, 387–388
        Medications review, and hip fracture, 373–374
         falls and, 363
         in anorexia, 317
        Mental health issues, and cognitive frailty, 347
        Mental Status Examination, Saint Louis University (SLUMS), 329–330, 388, 434
        Muscle fiber structure, age-related changes in, 306
        Muscle loss, in cachexia, 309
        Muscle mass, and function, regulators of, 307
         loss of, 305
        consequences of, 307–308
        Muscle tone, anorexia and, 316

        N

        Neuronal loss, nigral, and cognitive frailty, 346–347

        O

        Obstructive sleep apnea, mild cognitive impairment in, 329
        Orthostatic hypotension, falls and, 361

        P

        Palliative care, and end-of-life care. See End-of-life care, and palliative care.
        Palliative clinical care, 423–425
        Palliative Performance Scale, 422, 424
        Parkinson disease patients, suicide in, 389
        Polypharmacy, causing mild cognitive impairment, 328
        Psychiatric impairments, in depression, 388–389
        Psychosis, assessment of, 387

        R

        Rapid Geriatric Assessment, Saint Louis University (RGA), 431, 432
        Resilience, definition of, 294–297

        S

        Saint Louis University, Mental Status Examination (SLUMS), 329–330, 388, 434
         Rapid Geriatric Assessment (RGA), 431, 432
        SARC-F questionnaire, 433
        Sarco-osteoporosis, 309
        Sarcopenia, 305–314
         definition(s) of, 306, 433
        compared, 306
         diagnosis of, 309, 310
         etiology of, 306–307
         frailty related to, 308–309
         modifiable causes of, 306–307
         nutritional recommendations in, 311
         prevalence of, 306
         syndromes and diseases closely related to, 308–309
         treatment of, biomarkers to monitor, 312
        nonpharmaceutical, 310–311
        pharmaceutical, 311–312
        Sedentary behavior, falls and, 360
        Sensory impairment, falls in, 359
        Sherbrooke Postal Questionnaire, 6-item, 297
        Simplified Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire (SNAQ), 319, 433
        Suicidality, assessment of, 386
         risk factors for, 385–386
        Suicide, in Parkinson disease patients, 389

        T

        Tilburg Frailty Indicator, 296
        Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT), in falls, 362

        V

        Vitamin K antagonists, hip fracture and, 373