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The New Geriatric Giants

      In 1965, Bernard Isaacs coined the term “geriatric giants.” At that time, he named the geriatric giants as immobility, instability, incontinence, and impaired intellect/memory.
      • Morley J.E.
      A brief history of geriatrics.
      Over the subsequent fifty years, geriatrics has evolved, and today, the understanding of the modern “geriatric giants” has evolved to encompass the four new syndromes of frailty,
      • Morley J.E.
      • von Haehling S.
      • Anker S.D.
      • et al.
      From sarcopenia to frailty: a road less traveled.
      sarcopenia,
      • Argiles J.M.
      • Muscaritoli M.
      The three faces of sarcopenia.
      the anorexia of aging,
      • Morley J.E.
      Pathophysiology of the anorexia of aging.
      and cognitive impairment.
      • Morley J.E.
      • Morris J.C.
      • Berg-Weger M.
      • et al.
      Brain health: the importance of recognizing cognitive impairment: an IAGG consensus conference.
      These conditions are the harbingers of falls,
      • Morley J.E.
      Is it possible to prevent injurious falls?.
      hip fractures,
      • Wendt K.
      • Heim D.
      • Josten C.
      • et al.
      Recommendations on hip fractures.
      depression,
      • Gebretsadik M.
      • Jayaprabhu S.
      • Grossberg G.T.
      Mood disorders in the elderly.
      and delirium.
      • Rudolph J.L.
      Arousal, attention, and an abundance of opportunity to advance delirium care.
      In this issue of the Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, we discuss in detail these “modern giants of geriatrics” and how early detection of these syndromes and intervention to correct these early signs of accelerated aging can reduce disability, hospitalization, institutionalization, and mortality.
      • Morley J.E.
      • Adams E.V.
      Rapid geriatric assessment.

      References

        • Morley J.E.
        A brief history of geriatrics.
        J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2004; 59: 1132-1152
        • Morley J.E.
        • von Haehling S.
        • Anker S.D.
        • et al.
        From sarcopenia to frailty: a road less traveled.
        J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2014; 5: 5-8
        • Argiles J.M.
        • Muscaritoli M.
        The three faces of sarcopenia.
        J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2016; 17: 471-472
        • Morley J.E.
        Pathophysiology of the anorexia of aging.
        Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2013; 16: 27-32
        • Morley J.E.
        • Morris J.C.
        • Berg-Weger M.
        • et al.
        Brain health: the importance of recognizing cognitive impairment: an IAGG consensus conference.
        J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2015; 16: 731-739
        • Morley J.E.
        Is it possible to prevent injurious falls?.
        Eur Geriatr Med. 2014; 5: 75-77
        • Wendt K.
        • Heim D.
        • Josten C.
        • et al.
        Recommendations on hip fractures.
        Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg. 2016; 42: 425-431
        • Gebretsadik M.
        • Jayaprabhu S.
        • Grossberg G.T.
        Mood disorders in the elderly.
        Med Clin North Am. 2006; 90: 789-805
        • Rudolph J.L.
        Arousal, attention, and an abundance of opportunity to advance delirium care.
        J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2016; 17: 775-776
        • Morley J.E.
        • Adams E.V.
        Rapid geriatric assessment.
        J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2015; 16: 808-812