Advertisement

Acute Kidney Injury, Sodium Disorders, and Hypercalcemia in the Aging Kidney

Diagnostic and Therapeutic Management Strategies in Emergency Medicine

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribers receive full online access to your subscription and archive of back issues up to and including 2002.

      Content published before 2002 is available via pay-per-view purchase only.

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Clinics in Geriatric Medicine
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

      Renal Aging

        • CDC
        The State of Aging and Health in America 2007. Centers for disease Control and Prevention and the Merck Company Foundation. The Merck Company Foundation, Whitehouse Station, NJ2007
        • USRDS
        USRDS 2007 annual data report: atlas of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease in the United States. vol. 2007. National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda (MD)2007
        • Zou X.J.
        • Saxena R.
        • Liu Z.
        • et al.
        Renal senescence in 2008: progress and challenges.
        Int Urol Nephrol. 2008; 40: 823-839
        • Zhou X.J.
        • Laszik Z.G.
        • Silva F.G.
        Anatomical changes in the aging kidney.
        in: Macias-Nunez J.F. Cameron J.S. Oreopoulos D.G. The aging kidney in health and disease. Springer, New York2007: 39-54
        • Silva F.G.
        The aging kidney: a review – part I.
        Int Urol Nephrol. 2005; 37: 185-205
        • Takazakura E.
        • Sawabu N.
        • Handa A.
        • et al.
        Intrarenal vascular changes with age and disease.
        Kidney Int. 1972; 2: 224-230
      1. Schlanger L. Chapter 4: Kidney senescence, Proceedings of the American Society of Nephrology, Geriatric Nephrology Curriculum 2009. American Society of Nephrology: P3–4.

        • Nyengaard J.R.
        • Bendtsen T.F.
        Glomerular number and size in relation to age, kidney weight and body surface in normal man.
        Anat Rec. 1992; 232: 194-201
        • Kasiske B.L.
        Relationship between vascular disease and age-associated changes in the human kidney.
        Kidney Int. 1987; 31: 1153-1159
        • Kaplan C.
        • Pasternack B.
        • Shah H.
        • et al.
        Age-related incidence of sclerotic glomeruli in human kidneys.
        Am J Pathol. 1975; 80: 227-234
        • Smith S.M.
        • Hoy W.E.
        • Cobb L.
        Low incidence of glomerulosclerosis in normal kidneys.
        Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1989; 118: 1253-1255
        • McLachlan M.S.
        The ageing kidney.
        Lancet. 1978; 2: 143-146
        • Weinstein J.R.
        • Anderson S.
        The aging kidney: physiological changes.
        Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2010; 17: 302-307
        • Silva F.G.
        The ageing kidney: a review - part II.
        Int Urol Nephrol. 2005; 37: 419-432
        • Baert L.
        • Steg A.
        Is the diverticulum of the distal and collecting tubules a preliminary stage of the simple cyst in the adult?.
        J Urol. 1977; 118: 707-710
        • Tada S.
        • Yamagishi J.
        • Kobayashi H.
        • et al.
        The incidence of simple renal cyst by computed tomography.
        Clin Radiol. 1983; 34: 437-439
        • Goldring W.
        • Chasis H.
        • Ranges H.A.
        • et al.
        Relations of effective renal blood flow and glomerular filtration to tubular excretory mass in normal man.
        J Clin Invest. 1940; 19: 739-750
        • Davies D.F.
        • Shock N.W.
        Age changes in glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow and tubular excretory capacity in adult males.
        J Clin Invest. 1950; 29: 496-507
        • Watkin D.M.
        • Shock N.W.
        Age-wise standard value for Cin, CPAH, and TmPAH in adult males.
        J Clin Invest. 1955; 34: 969-977
        • Wesson L.G.
        Renal hemodynamics in physiological states.
        in: Wesson L.G. Physiology of the human kidney. Grune & Stratton, New York1969: 96-116
        • Hollenberg N.K.
        • Adams D.F.
        • Solomon H.S.
        • et al.
        Senescence and the renal vasculature in normal man.
        Circ Res. 1974; 34: 309-316
        • Fuiano G.
        • Sund S.
        • Mazza G.
        • et al.
        Renal hemodynamic response to maximal vasodilating stimulus in healthy older subjects.
        Kidney Int. 2001; 59: 1052-1058
        • Esposito C.
        • Plati A.
        • Mazzullo T.
        • et al.
        Renal function and functional reserve in healthy elderly individuals.
        J Nephrol. 2007; 20: 617-625
        • Rowe J.W.
        • Andres R.
        • Tobin J.D.
        • et al.
        The effect of age on creatinine clearance in men: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study.
        J Gerontol. 1976; 31: 155-163
        • Berg U.B.
        Differences in decline in GFR with age between males and females: reference data on clearances of inulin and PAH in potential kidney donors.
        Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2006; 21: 2577-2582
        • Pendse S.
        • Singh A.
        Approach to patients with chronic kidney disease, stages 1–4.
        in: Daugirdas J. Blake P. Ing T. Dialysis handbook. Kluwer, Philadelphia2008: 4-13
        • Kimmel P.L.
        • Lew S.Q.
        • Bosch J.P.
        Nutrition, ageing and GFR: is age associated decline inevitable?.
        Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1996; 11: 85-88
        • Berman N.
        • Hostetter T.H.
        Comparing the Cockcroft-Gault and MDRD equations for calculation of GFR and drug doses in the elderly.
        Nat Clin Pract Nephrol. 2007; 3: 644-645
        • Gill J.
        • Malyuk R.
        • Djurdjev O.
        • et al.
        Use of GFR equations to adjust drug doses in an elderly multi-ethnic group a cautionary tale.
        Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007; 22: 2894-2899
        • Epstein M.
        • Hollenberg N.K.
        Age as a determinant of renal sodium conservation in normal man.
        J Lab Clin Med. 1976; 87: 411-417
        • Luft F.C.
        • Grim C.E.
        • Fineberg N.
        • et al.
        Effects of volume expansion and contraction in normotensive whites, blacks and subjects of different ages.
        Circulation. 1979; 59: 644-655
        • Bauer J.
        Age-related changes in the renin-aldosterone system.
        Drugs Aging. 1993; 3: 238-245
        • Shannon R.P.
        • Wei J.Y.
        • Rosa R.M.
        • et al.
        The effect of age and sodium depletion on cardiovascular response to orthostasis.
        Hypertension. 1986; 8: 438-443
        • Perazella M.A.
        • Mahnensmith R.L.
        Hyperkalemia in the elderly: drugs exacerbate impaired potassium homeostasis.
        J Gen Intern Med. 1997; 12: 646-656
        • Passare G.
        • Viitanen M.
        • Torring O.
        • et al.
        Sodium and potassium disturbances in the elderly: prevalence and association with drug use.
        Clin Drug Investig. 2004; 24: 535-544
        • Bengele H.
        • Mathias R.
        • Perkins J.H.
        • et al.
        Impaired renal and extrarenal potassium adaptation in old rats.
        Kidney Int. 1983; 23: 684-690
        • Rowe J.
        • Shock N.
        • De Fronzo R.
        The influence of age on the renal response to water deprivation in man.
        Nephron. 1976; 17: 270-278
        • Lindeman R.D.
        • Van Buren H.
        • Maisz L.
        Osmolar renal concentrating ability in healthy young men and hospitalized patients without renal disease.
        N Engl J Med. 1960; 262: 1306-1309
        • Beck N.
        • Yu B.
        Effect of aging on urinary concentrating mechanism and vasopressin-dependent cAMP in rats.
        Am J Physiol. 1982; 243: F121-F125
        • Terashima Y.
        • Kondo K.
        • Inagaki A.
        • et al.
        Age-associated decrease in response of rat aquaporin-2 gene expression to dehydration.
        Life Sci. 1998; 62: 873-882
        • Crowe M.J.
        • Forsling M.L.
        • Rolls B.J.
        • et al.
        Altered water excretion in healthy elderly man.
        Age Ageing. 1987; 16: 285-293
        • Faull C.M.
        • Holmes C.
        • Baylis P.H.
        Water balance in elderly people: is there a deficiency of vasopressin?.
        Age Ageing. 1993; 22: 114-120
        • Frassetto L.
        • Morris R.C.
        • Sebastian A.
        Effect of age on blood acid-base composition in adult human: role of age-related renal functional decline.
        Am J Physiol. 1996; 271: 1112-1114
        • Adler S.
        • Lindeman R.D.
        • Yiengst M.J.
        • et al.
        Effect of acute acid loading on urinary acid excretion by the aging human kidney.
        J Lab Clin Med. 1968; 72: 278-289
        • Agarwal B.N.
        • Cabebe F.G.
        Renal acidification in elderly subjects.
        Nephron. 1980; 26: 291-295
        • Ershler W.B.
        • Sheng S.
        • McKelvey J.
        • et al.
        Serum erythropoietin and aging: a longitudinal analysis.
        J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005; 53: 1360-1365
        • Carpenter M.A.
        • Kendall R.G.
        • O’Brien A.E.
        • et al.
        Reduced erythropoietin response to anaemia in elderly patients with normocytic anaemia.
        Eur J Haematol. 1992; 49: 119-121
        • Ferrucci L.
        • Guralnik J.M.
        • Bandinelli S.
        • et al.
        Unexplained anaemia in older persons is characterized by low erythropoietin and low levels of pro-inflammatory markers.
        Br J Haematol. 2007; 136: 849-855

      Hyponatremia

        • Anderson R.J.
        • Chung H.M.
        • Kluge R.
        • et al.
        Hyponatremia: a prospective analysis of its epidemiology and the pathogenetic role of vasopressin.
        Ann Intern Med. 1985; 102: 164-168
        • Waikar S.S.
        • Mount D.B.
        • Curhan G.
        Mortality after hospitalization with mild, moderate, and severe hyponatremia.
        Am J Med. 2009; 122: 857
        • Vroonhof K.
        • Van Solinge W.W.
        • Rovers M.M.
        • et al.
        Differences in mortality on the basis of laboratory parameters in an unselected population at the emergency department.
        Clin Chem Lab Med. 2005; 43: 536-541
        • Lee C.T.
        • Guo H.R.
        • Chen J.B.
        Hyponatremia in the emergency department.
        Am J Emerg Med. 2000; 18: 264-268
        • Hawkins R.C.
        Age and gender as risk factors for hyponatremia and hypernatremia.
        Clin Chim Acta. 2003; 337: 169-172
        • Miller M.
        • Morley J.E.
        • Rubenstein L.Z.
        Hyponatremia.
        J Am Geriatr Soc. 1995; 12: 1410-1413
        • Choudhury M.
        • Aparanji K.
        • Norkus E.P.
        • et al.
        Hyponatremia in hospitalized nursing home residents and outcome: minimize hospitalization and keep the stay short!.
        J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2012; 13: 8-9
        • Chua M.
        • Hoyle G.E.
        • Soiza R.L.
        Prognostic implications of hyponatremia in elderly hospitalized patients.
        Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2007; 45: 253-258
        • Sandhu H.S.
        Hyponatremia associated with large-bone fracture in elderly patients.
        Int Urol Nephrol. 2009; 41: 733-737
        • Hoorn E.J.
        Mild hyponatremia as a risk factor for fractures: the Rotterdam study.
        J Bone Miner Res. 2011; 26: 1822-1828
        • Bourque C.W.
        • Oliet S.H.
        Osmoreceptors in the central nervous system.
        Annu Rev Physiol. 1997; 59: 601-619
        • Burbach J.P.
        • Luckman S.M.
        • Murphy D.
        • et al.
        Gene regulation in the magnocellular hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system.
        Physiol Rev. 2001; 81: 1197-1267
        • Nielsen S.
        • Frokiaer J.
        • Marples D.
        • et al.
        Aquaporins in the kidney: from molecules to medicine.
        Physiol Rev. 2002; 82: 205-244
        • McKinley M.J.
        • Johnson A.K.
        The physiological regulation of thirst and fluid intake.
        News Physiol Sci. 2004; 19: 1-6
        • Zerbe R.L.
        • Robertson G.L.
        Osmoregulation of thirst and vasopressin secretion in human subjects: effect of various solutes.
        Am J Physiol. 1983; 244: E607-E614
        • Dyke M.M.
        • Daxis K.M.
        • Clark B.A.
        • et al.
        Effects of hypertonicity on water intake in the elderly: an age related failure.
        Geriatr Nephrol Urol. 1997; 7: 11-16
        • Patel G.P.
        • Balk R.A.
        Recognition and treatment of hyponatremia in acutely ill hospitalized patients.
        Clin Ther. 2007; 29: 211-229
        • Papanicolaou D.A.
        • Wilder R.L.
        • Manolagas S.C.
        • et al.
        The pathophysiologic roles of interleukin-6 in human disease.
        Ann Intern Med. 1998; 128: 127-137
        • Beukhof C.M.
        • Hoorn E.J.
        • Lindemans J.
        • et al.
        Novel risk factors for hospital-acquired hyponatraemia: a matched case-control study.
        Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2007; 66: 367-372
        • Ellis S.J.
        Severe hyponatraemia: complications and treatment.
        QJM. 1995; 88: 905-909
        • Renneboog B.
        • Musch W.
        • Vandemergel X.
        • et al.
        Mild chronic hyponatremia is associated with falls, unsteadiness, and attention deficits.
        Am J Med. 2006; 119: 71.e1-71.e8
        • Gosch M.
        • Joosten-Gstrein B.
        • Heppner H.J.
        • et al.
        Hyponatremia in geriatric in-hospital patients: effects on results of a comprehensive geriatric assessment.
        Gerontology. 2012; 58: 430-440
        • McGee S.
        • Abernethy 3rd, W.B.
        • Simel D.L.
        The rational clinical examination. Is this patient hypovolemic?.
        JAMA. 1999; 281: 1022-1029
        • Chung H.M.
        • Kluge R.
        • Schrier R.W.
        • et al.
        Clinical assessment of extracellular fluid volume in hyponatremia.
        Am J Med. 1987; 83: 905-908
        • Adrogue H.J.
        • Madias N.E.
        Hyponatremia.
        N Engl J Med. 2000; 342: 1581-1589
        • Abramow M.
        • Beauwens R.
        • Cogan E.
        Cellular events in vasopressin action.
        Kidney Int Suppl. 1987; 21: S56-S66
        • Yun J.J.
        • Cheong I.
        Mannitol-induced hyperosmolal hyponatraemia.
        Intern Med J. 2008; 38: 73
        • Katz M.A.
        Hyperglycemia-induced hyponatremia--calculation of expected serum sodium depression.
        N Engl J Med. 1973; 289: 843-844
        • Hillier T.A.
        • Abbott R.D.
        • Barrett E.J.
        Hyponatremia: evaluating the correction factor for hyperglycemia.
        Am J Med. 1999; 106: 399-403
        • Maas A.H.
        • Siggaard-Andersen O.
        • Weisberg H.F.
        • et al.
        Ion-selective electrodes for sodium and potassium: a new problem of what is measured and what should be reported.
        Clin Chem. 1985; 31: 482-485
        • Rose B.D.
        Hypoosmolal states — hyponatremia.
        in: Rose B.D. Post T.W. Clinical physiology of acid-base and electrolyte disorders. 5th edition. MacGraw Hill, New York2001: 696-745
        • Dundas B.
        • Harris M.
        • Narasimhan M.
        Psychogenic polydipsia review: etiology, differential, and treatment.
        Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2007; 9: 236-241
        • Bersani G.
        • Pesaresi L.
        • Orlandi V.
        • et al.
        Atypical antipsychotics and polydipsia: a cause or a treatment?.
        Hum Psychopharmacol. 2007; 22: 103-107
        • Fenves A.Z.
        • Thomas S.
        • Knochel J.P.
        Beer potomania: two cases and review of the literature.
        Clin Nephrol. 1996; 45: 61-64
        • Sanghvi S.R.
        • Kellerman P.S.
        • Nanovic L.
        Beer potomania: an unusual cause of hyponatremia at high risk of complications from rapid correction.
        Am J Kidney Dis. 2007; 50: 673-680
        • Chen L.K.
        • Lin M.H.
        • Hwang S.J.
        • et al.
        Hyponatremia among the institutionalized elderly in 2 long-term care facilities in Taipei.
        J Chin Med Assoc. 2006; 69: 115-119
        • Saghafi D.
        Water loading test in the reset osmostat variant of SIADH.
        Am J Med. 1993; 95 ([letter]): 343
        • Schrier R.W.
        Pathogenesis of sodium and water retention in high-output and low-output cardiac failure, nephrotic syndrome, cirrhosis, and pregnancy.
        N Engl J Med. 1988; 319: 1065-1072
        • Goldberg A.
        • Hammerman H.
        • Petcherski S.
        • et al.
        Hyponatremia and long-term mortality in survivors of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction.
        Arch Intern Med. 2006; 166: 781-786
        • Sonnenblick M.
        • Friedlander Y.
        • Rosin A.J.
        Diuretic-induced severe hyponatremia. Review and analysis of 129 reported patients.
        Chest. 1993; 103: 601-606
        • Palmer B.F.
        Hyponatraemia in a neurosurgical patient: syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion versus cerebral salt wasting.
        Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2000; 15: 262-268
        • Sterns R.H.
        • Silver S.M.
        Cerebral salt wasting versus SIADH: what difference?.
        J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008; 19: 194-196
        • Maesaka J.K.
        • Gupta S.
        • Fishbane S.
        Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome: does it exist?.
        Nephron. 1999; 82: 100-109
        • Kimura T.
        Potential mechanisms of hypothyroidism-induced hyponatremia.
        Intern Med. 2000; 39 ([editorial]): 1002-1003
        • Gagnon R.F.
        • Halperin M.L.
        Possible mechanisms to explain the absence of hyperkalaemia in Addison’s disease.
        Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2001; 16: 1280-1284
        • Diederich S.
        • Franzen N.F.
        • Bahr V.
        • et al.
        Severe hyponatremia due to hypopituitarism with adrenal insufficiency: report on 28 cases.
        Eur J Endocrinol. 2003; 148: 609-617
        • Decaux G.
        • Musch W.
        • Penninckx R.
        • et al.
        Low plasma bicarbonate level in hyponatremia related to adrenocorticotropin deficiency.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003; 88: 5255-5257
        • Ellison D.H.
        • Berl T.
        Clinical practice. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis.
        N Engl J Med. 2007; 356: 2064-2072
        • Robertson G.L.
        Regulation of arginine vasopressin in the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis.
        Am J Med. 2006; 119: S36-S42
        • Fabian T.J.
        • Amico J.A.
        • Kroboth P.D.
        • et al.
        Paroxetine-induced hyponatremia in older adults. A 12-week prospective study.
        Arch Intern Med. 2004; 164: 327-332
        • Miller M.
        • Hecker M.S.
        • Friedlander D.A.
        • et al.
        Apparent idiopathic hyponatremia in an ambulatory geriatric population.
        J Am Geriatr Soc. 1996; 44: 404-408
        • Maesaka J.K.
        An expanded view of SIADH, hyponatremia and hypouricemia.
        Clin Nephrol. 1996; 46: 79-83
        • Verbalis J.G.
        • Goldsmith S.R.
        • Greenberg A.
        • et al.
        Hyponatremia treatment guidelines 2007: expert panel recommendations.
        Am J Med. 2007; 120: S1-21
        • Sterns R.
        • Hix J.K.
        • Silver S.
        Treating profound hyponatremia: a strategy for controlled correction.
        Am J Kidney Dis. 2010; 56: 774-779
        • Vaidya C.
        • Ho W.
        • Freda B.J.
        Management of hyponatremia: providing treatment and avoiding harm.
        Cleve Clin J Med. 2010; 77: 715-726
        • Lee P.
        • Jones G.R.
        • Center J.R.
        Successful treatment of adult cerebral salt wasting with fludrocortisone.
        Arch Intern Med. 2008; 168: 325-326
        • Martin R.J.
        Central pontine and extrapontine myelinolysis: the osmotic demyelination syndromes.
        J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004; 75: 22-28
      1. Sterns R. Osmotic demyelination syndrome and overly rapid correction of hyponatremia. In: Uptodate. 2012. Available at: http://www.uptodate.com/contents/osmotic-demyelination-syndrome-and-overly-rapid-correction-of-hyponatremia?source=search_result&search=osmotic+demyelination+syndrome&selectedTitle=1%7E35. Accessed September 29, 2012.

        • Kumar S.R.
        • Mone A.P.
        • Gray L.C.
        • et al.
        Central pontine myelinolysis: delayed changes on neuroimaging.
        J Neuroimaging. 2000; 10: 169-172
        • Finsterer J.
        • Engelmayar E.
        • Trnka E.
        • et al.
        Immunoglobulins are effective in pontine myelinolysis.
        Clin Neuropharmacol. 2000; 23: 110-113
        • Oya S.
        • Tsutsumi K.
        • Ueki K.
        • et al.
        Reinduction of hyponatraemia to treat central pontine myelinolysis.
        Neurology. 2001; 57: 1931-1932

      Hypernatremia

        • Long C.A.
        • Marin P.
        • Bayer A.J.
        • et al.
        Hypernatremia in an adult in-patient population.
        Postgrad Med J. 1991; 67: 643-645
        • Lindner G.
        • Funk G.C.
        • Schwarz C.
        • et al.
        Hypernatremia in the critically ill is an independent risk factor for mortality.
        Am J Kidney Dis. 2007; 50: 952
        • Polderman K.H.
        • Schreuder W.O.
        • Strack van Schijndel R.J.
        • et al.
        Hypernatremia in the intensive care unit: an indicator of quality of care?.
        Crit Care Med. 1999; 27: 1105-1108
        • Arampatzis S.
        • Exadaktylos A.
        • Buhl D.
        • et al.
        Dysnatraemias in the emergency room: undetected, untreated, unknown?.
        Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2012; 124: 181-183
        • Snyder N.A.
        • Feigal D.W.
        • Arieff A.L.
        Hypematremia in elderly patients. A heterogeneous, morbid and iatrogenic entity.
        Ann Intern Med. 1987; 107: 309-319
        • Chassagne P.
        • Druesne L.
        • Capet C.
        • et al.
        Clinical presentation of hypernatremia in elderly patients: a case control study.
        J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006; 54: 1225-1230
        • Phillips P.A.
        • Rolls B.J.
        • Ledingham J.G.
        • et al.
        Reduced thirst after water deprivation in healthy elderly men.
        N Engl J Med. 1984; 311: 753-759
        • Borra S.I.
        • Beredo R.
        • Kleinfeld M.
        Hypernatremia in the aging: causes, manifestations, and outcome.
        J Natl Med Assoc. 1995; 87: 220-224
        • Adrogue H.J.
        • Madias N.E.
        Hypernatraemia.
        N Engl J Med. 2000; 342: 1493-1499
        • Lien Y.H.
        • Shapiro J.I.
        • Chan L.
        Effects of hypernatremia on organic brain osmoles.
        J Clin Invest. 1990; 85: 1427-1435
        • Simmons M.
        • Adcock III, E.W.
        • Bard H.
        • et al.
        Hypernatremia and intracranial hemorrhage in infants.
        N Engl J Med. 1974; 291: 6
        • Lavizzo-Mourey R.
        • Johnson J.
        • Stolley P.
        Risk factors for dehydration among elderly nursing home residents.
        J Am Geriatr Soc. 1988; 36: 213-218
        • Kumar S.
        • Berl T.
        Sodium.
        Lancet. 1998; 352: 220-228
        • Robertson G.L.
        Abnormalities of thirst regulation.
        Kidney Int. 1984; 25: 460-469
        • DeRubertis F.R.
        • Michelis M.F.
        • Davis B.B.
        Essential hypernatremia. Report of three cases and review of the literature.
        Arch Intern Med. 1974; 134: 889-895
        • Gennari F.J.
        • Kassirer J.P.
        Osmotic diuresis.
        N Engl J Med. 1977; 291: 714-720
        • Craig J.C.
        • Grigor W.G.
        • Knight J.F.
        Acute obstructive uropathy a rare complication of circumcision.
        Eur J Pediatr. 1994; 153: 369-371
        • Arinzona Z.
        • Feldmanc J.
        • Peisakhb A.
        • et al.
        Water and sodium disturbances predict prognosis of acute disease in long term cared frail elderly.
        Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2005; 40: 317-326
        • Sonnenblick M.
        • Algur N.
        Hypernatremia in the acutely ill elderly patients: role of impaired arginine-vasopressin secretion.
        Miner Electrolyte Metab. 1993; 19: 32-35
        • Lin M.
        • Liu S.J.
        • Lim I.T.
        Disorders of water imbalance.
        Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2005; 23: 749-770
        • Nemergut E.C.
        • Zuo Z.
        • Jane Jr., J.A.
        • et al.
        Predictors of diabetes insipidus after transsphenoidal surgery: a review of 881 patients.
        J Neurosurg. 2005; 103: 448
        • Hadjizacharia P.
        • Beale E.O.
        • Inaba K.
        • et al.
        Acute diabetes insipidus in severe head injury: a prospective study.
        J Am Coll Surg. 2008; 207: 477
        • Aimaretti G.
        • Ambrosio M.R.
        • Di Somma C.
        • et al.
        Traumatic brain injury and subarachnoid haemorrhage are conditions at high risk for hypopituitarism: screening study at 3 months after the brain injury.
        Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2004; 61: 320-326
        • Kimmel D.W.
        • O’Neil B.P.
        Systemic cancer presenting as diabetes insipidus clinical and radiographic features of 11 patients with review of metastatic-induced diabetes insipidus.
        Cancer. 1983; 52: 2355
        • Stuart C.A.
        • Neelon F.A.
        • Lebovitz H.E.
        Disordered control of thirst in hypothalamic-pituitary sarcoidosis.
        N Engl J Med. 1980; 303: 1078
        • Thodou E.
        • Asa S.L.
        • Kontogeorgos G.
        • et al.
        Clinical case seminar: lymphocytic hypophysitis: clinicopathological findings.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995; 80: 2303
        • Holtzman E.J.
        • Ausiello D.A.
        Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: causes revealed.
        Hosp Pract. 1994; 29: 89-93
        • Bendz H.
        • Aurell M.
        Drug-induced diabetes insipidus: incidence, prevention and management.
        Drug Saf. 1999; 21: 449-456
        • Felig P.
        • Johnson C.
        • Levitt M.
        • et al.
        Hypernatremia induced by maximal exercise.
        JAMA. 1982; 248: 1209-1211
        • Manitius A.
        • Levitin H.
        • Beck D.
        • et al.
        On the mechanism of impairment of renal concentrating ability in potassium deficiency.
        J Clin Invest. 1960; 39: 684-692
        • Agrawal V.
        • Agarwal M.
        • Joshi S.
        • et al.
        Hyponatremia and hypernatremia: disorder of water balance.
        J Assoc Physicians India. 2008; 56: 956-964

      Hypercalcemia

        • Shane E.
        • Dinaz I.
        Hypercalcemia: pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, differential diagnosis, and management.
        in: 6th edition. Primer on the metabolic bone diseases and disorders of mineral metabolism. vol. 26. Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins, Philadelphia2006: 176
        • Bilezikian J.P.
        Management of acute hypercalcemia.
        N Engl J Med. 1992; 326: 1196
        • Inzucchi S.E.
        Understanding hypercalcemia. Its metabolic basis, signs and symptoms.
        Postgrad Med. 2004; 115: 69
        • Ohrvall U.
        • Akerstrom G.
        • Ljunghall S.
        • et al.
        Surgery for sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism in the elderly.
        World J Surg. 1994; 18: 612
        • French S.
        • Subauste J.
        • Geraci S.
        Calcium abnormalities in hospitalized patients.
        South Med J. 2012; 105: 231-237
        • Lafferty F.W.
        Differential diagnosis of hypercalcemia.
        J Bone Miner Res. 1991; 6: S51
        • Dent D.M.
        • Miller J.L.
        • Klaff L.
        • et al.
        The incidence and causes of hypercalcaemia.
        Postgrad Med J. 1987; 63: 745-750
        • Mundy G.R.
        • Guise T.A.
        Hypercalcemia of malignancy.
        Am J Med. 1997; 103: 134-145
        • Edelson G.W.
        • Kleerekoper M.
        Hypercalcemic crisis.
        Med Clin North Am. 1995; 79: 79-92
        • Raymakers J.A.
        Tijdschr Gerontol Geriatr. 1990; 21 ([in Dutch]): 11-16
        • Wick J.Y.
        Immobilization hypercalcemia in the elderly.
        Consult Pharm. 2007; 22: 892-905
        • Carroll M.F.
        • Schade D.S.
        A practical approach to hypercalcemia.
        Am Fam Physician. 2003; 67: 1959-1966
        • Parfitt A.M.
        • Gallagher J.C.
        • Hearney R.P.
        • et al.
        Vitamin D and bone health in the elderly.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 1982; 36: 1014-1031
        • Fishbane S.
        • Frei G.L.
        • Finger M.
        • et al.
        Hypervitaminosis A in two hemodialysis patients.
        Am J Kidney Dis. 1995; 25: 346
        • Niesvizky R.
        • Siegel D.S.
        • Busquets X.
        • et al.
        Hypercalcaemia and increased serum interleukin-6 levels induced by all-trans retinoic acid in patients with multiple myeloma.
        Br J Haematol. 1995; 89: 217
        • Khairallah W.
        • Fawaz A.
        • Brown E.M.
        • et al.
        Hypercalcemia and diabetes insipidus in a patient previously treated with lithium.
        Nat Clin Pract Nephrol. 2007; 3: 397
        • Abreo K.
        • Adiakha A.
        • Kilpatrick S.
        • et al.
        The milk-alkali syndrome. A reversible form of acute renal failure.
        Arch Intern Med. 1993; 153: 1005
        • Legha S.S.
        • Powell K.
        • Buzdar A.U.
        • et al.
        Tamoxifen-induced hypercalcemia in breast cancer.
        Cancer. 1981; 47: 2803
        • Kikuchi R.
        • Mochizuli S.
        • Shimizu M.
        • et al.
        Elderly patient presenting with severe thyrotoxic hpercalcemia.
        Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2000; 6: 270-273
        • Jamie S.
        • Tyler C.V.
        • Parambil J.G.
        Sarcoidosis presenting as symptomatic hypercalcemia in octogenarian.
        Clin Geriatr. 2011; 19: 43-46
        • Ianuzzi M.C.
        • Fontana J.R.
        Sarcoidosis: clinical presentation, immunopathogenesis and treatment.
        JAMA. 2011; 305: 391-399
        • Boonen S.
        • Vanderschueren D.
        • Pelemans W.
        • et al.
        Primary hyperparathyroidism: diagnosis and management in the older individual.
        Eur J Endocrinol. 2004; 151: 297-304
        • Blomquist C.P.
        Malignant hypercalcemia: a hospital survey.
        Acta Med Scand. 1986; 220: 455-463
        • Bollanti L.
        • Rindino G.
        • Strollo F.
        Endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes with special reference to the elderly.
        Endocrine. 2001; 14: 151-157
        • Ghazi A.A.
        • Attarian H.
        • Attarian S.
        • et al.
        Hypercalcemia and huge splenomegaly presenting in an elderly patient with B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
        J Med Case Rep. 2010; 4: 330
        • Mallette L.E.
        • Eichhorn E.
        Effects of lithium carbonate on human calcium metabolism.
        Arch Intern Med. 1986; 146: 770-776
        • Aryan C.E.
        • Sosa J.A.
        Assessment and management of patients with abnormal calcium.
        Crit Care Med. 2004; 32: 745-750
        • Verges B.
        Presse Med. 2001; 30 ([in French]): 313-316
        • Solomon B.L.
        • Schaaf M.
        • Smallridge R.C.
        Psychologic symptoms before and after parathyroid surgery.
        Am J Med. 1994; 96: 101-106
        • Gardner Jr., E.C.
        • Hersh T.
        Primary hyperparathyroidism and the gastrointestinal tract.
        South Med J. 1981; 74: 197
        • Wynn D.
        • Everett G.D.
        • Boothby R.A.
        Small cell carcinoma of the ovary with hypercalcemia causes severe pancreatitis and altered mental status.
        Gynecol Oncol. 2004; 95: 716
        • Abelhadi M.
        • Nordenstrom J.
        Bone mineral recovery after parathyroidectomy in primary and renal hyperparathyroidism.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998; 83: 3845-3851
        • Ahmed R.
        • Hashiba K.
        Reliability of QT intervals as indicators of clinical hypercalcemia.
        Clin Cardiol. 1988; 11: 395
        • Diercks D.B.
        • Shumaik G.M.
        • Harrigan R.A.
        • et al.
        Electrocardiographic manifestations: electrolyte abnormalities.
        J Emerg Med. 2004; 27: 153
        • Nishi S.P.
        • Barbagelata N.A.
        • Atar S.
        • et al.
        Hypercalcemia-induced ST-segment elevation mimicking acute myocardial infarction.
        J Electrocardiol. 2006; 39: 298
        • Roberts W.C.
        • Waller B.F.
        Effect of chronic hypercalcemia on the heart. An analysis of 18 necropsy patients.
        Am J Med. 1981; 71: 371
        • Okeefe K.P.
        • Sanson T.G.
        Elderly patients with altered mental status.
        Emerg Med Clin North Am. 1998; 16 (v): 701-715
        • Grill V.
        • Ho P.
        • Brody J.J.
        • et al.
        Partathyroid hormone-related protein: elevated levels in both humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy and hypercalcemia complicating metastatic breast cancer.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1991; 73: 1309-1315
        • Hosking D.J.
        • Cowley A.
        • Bucknall C.A.
        Rehydration in the treatment of severe hypercalcemia.
        Q J Med. 1981; 50: 473-481
        • Body J.J.
        Hypercalcemia of malignancy.
        Semin Nephrol. 2004; 24: 48
        • Legrand S.B.
        • Leskuski D.
        • Zama I.
        Narrative review: furosemide for hyprcalcemia: an unproven yet common practice.
        Ann Intern Med. 2008; 149: 259
        • Stewart A.F.
        Clinical practice. Hypercalcemia associated with cancer.
        N Engl J Med. 2005; 352: 373
        • Major P.
        • Lortholary A.
        • Hon J.
        • et al.
        Zoledronic acid is superior to pamidronate in the treatment of hypercalcemia of malignancy: a pooled analysis of two randomized, controlled clinical trials.
        J Clin Oncol. 2001; 19: 558
        • Wisneski L.A.
        Salmon calcitonin in the acute management of hypercalcemia.
        Calcif Tissue Int. 1990; 46: S26
        • Chitambar C.R.
        Gallium nitrate revisited.
        Semin Oncol. 2003; 30: 1
        • Lin P.H.
        • Chiu C.F.
        • Lu Y.S.
        Cisplatin as an active treatment of zoledronate-refractory hypercalcemia.
        Ann Oncol. 2011; 22: 1244-1246
        • Koo W.S.
        • Jeon D.S.
        • Ahn S.J.
        • et al.
        Calcium-free hemodialysis for the management of hypercalcemia.
        Nephron. 1996; 72: 424

      Acute Renal Failure

        • Coca S.G.
        Acute kidney injury in elderly persons.
        Am J Kidney Dis. 2010; 56: 122-131
        • Baraldi A.
        • Ballestri M.
        • Rapana R.
        • et al.
        Acute renal failure of medical type in an elderly population.
        Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1998; 13: S25-S29
        • Ali T.
        • Khan I.
        • Simpson W.
        • et al.
        Incidence and outcomes in acute kidney injury: a comprehensive population-based study.
        J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007; 18: 1292-1298
        • Rizzi Z.
        • Cruz D.
        • Ronco C.
        The RIFLE criteria and mortality in acute kidney injury: a systematic review.
        Kidney Int. 2008; 73: 538-546
        • Neild G.H.
        Multi-organ renal failure in the elderly.
        Int Urol Nephrol. 2001; 32: 559-565
        • Cheung C.M.
        • Ponnusamy A.
        • Anderton J.G.
        Management of acute renal failure in the elderly patient: a clinician’s guide.
        Drugs Aging. 2008; 25: 455-476
        • Schmitt R.
        • Coca S.
        • Kanbay M.E.
        • et al.
        Recovery of kidney function after acute kidney injury in the elderly: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Am J Kidney Dis. 2008; 52: 262-271
        • Coca S.G.
        • Cho K.C.
        • Hsu C.Y.
        Acute kidney injury in the elderly: predisposition to chronic kidney disease and vice versa.
        Nephron Clin Pract. 2011; 119: c19-c24
        • Chronopoulos A.
        • Rosner M.H.
        • Cruz D.N.
        • et al.
        Acute kidney injury in the elderly: a review.
        Contrib Nephrol. 2010; 165: 315-321
        • Martin J.E.
        • Scheaff M.T.
        Renal ageing.
        J Pathol. 2007; 211: 198-205
        • Chronopoulos A.
        • Cruz D.N.
        • Ronco C.
        Hospital acquired kidney injury in the elderly.
        Nat Rev Nephrol. 2010; 6: 141-149
        • Pascual J.
        • Liano F.
        • Ortuno J.
        The elderly patient with acute renal failure.
        J Am Soc Nephrol. 1995; 6: 144-153
        • Ronco C.
        • Haapio M.
        • House A.A.
        • et al.
        Cardiorenal syndrome.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008; 52: 1527-1539
        • Schmitt R.
        • Cantley L.G.
        The impact of aging on kidney repair.
        Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2008; 294: F1265-F1272
        • Bagshaw S.M.
        • George C.
        • Bellomo R.
        • et al.
        Early acute kidney injury and sepsis: a multicenter evaluation.
        Crit Care. 2008; 12: R47
        • Noor S.
        • Usmani A.
        Post operative renal failure.
        Clin Geriatr Med. 2008; 24: 721-729
        • Kishen R.
        Acute kidney injury in the elderly: a review.
        Indian Anesthetists Forum. 2011;
        • Jerkic M.
        • Volvodic S.
        • Lopez-Novoa J.M.
        The mechanism of increased renal susceptibility to toxic substances in the elderly. Part1. The role of increased vasoconstriction.
        Int Urol Nephrol. 2001; 32: 539-547
        • Sweleh W.
        • Sawalha A.
        • Al-Jaba S.
        • et al.
        Discharge medications among ischemic stroke survivors.
        J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2009; 18: 97-102
        • Kohli H.S.
        • Bhaskaran M.C.
        • Muthukumar T.
        • et al.
        Treatment-related acute renal failure in the elderly: a hospital based prospective study.
        Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2000; 15: 212-217
        • Serra A.
        • Romero R.
        Acute kidney failure in systemic vasculitis associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) in aged patients.
        Nefrologia. 2001; 21: 1-8
        • Becker A.
        • Buam M.
        Obstructive uropathy.
        Early Hum Dev. 2006; 82: 15-22
        • Christensan J.
        • Ostri P.
        • Frimodt-Moller C.
        • et al.
        Intravesical pressure changes during bladder drainage in patients with acute urinary retention.
        Urol Int. 1987; 42: 181-184
        • Zeidel M.L.
        • Pirtskhalaishvili G.
        Urinary tract obstruction.
        in: Brenner B.M. Brenner and Rector's The Kidney. 8th edition. Saunders Elsevier, Philadelphia, PA2007 (Chap. 35)
        • Abdel-Kadar K.
        • Palevsky P.
        Acute kidney injury in the elderly.
        Clin Geriatr Med. 2008; 25: 331-358
        • Haase M.
        • Story D.A.
        • Hasse-Fielitz A.
        Renal injury in the elderly: diagnosis, biomarkers and prevention.
        Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2011; 25: 401-412
        • Fliser D.
        • Ritz E.
        Serum cystatin C concentration as a marker of renal dysfunction in the elderly.
        Am J Kidney Dis. 2001; 37: 79-83
        • Thomas D.R.
        • Cote T.R.
        • Lawhorne L.
        • et al.
        Understanding clinical dehydration and its treatment.
        J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2008; 9: 292-301
        • Musso C.G.
        • Liakopoulos V.
        • Ioannidis I.
        • et al.
        Acute renal failure in the elderly: particular characteristics.
        Int Urol Nephrol. 2006; 38: 787-793
        • Schrier R.W.
        • Wang W.
        • Poole B.
        • et al.
        Acute renal failure: definitions, diagnosis, pathogenesis, and therapy.
        J Clin Invest. 2004; 114: 5-14
        • McCullough P.A.
        • Sandberg K.R.
        B-type naturetic peptide and renal disease.
        Heart Fail Rev. 2003; 8: 355-358
        • Srisawasdi P.
        • Vanavanan S.
        • Charoenpanichkit C.
        • et al.
        The effect of renal dysfunction on BNP, NT-proBNP, and their ratio.
        Am J Clin Pathol. 2010; 133: 14-23
        • Macedo E.
        • Bouchard J.
        • Mehta R.L.
        Renal recovery following acute kidney injury.
        Curr Opin Crit Care. 2008; 14: 660-666
        • Ishani A.
        • Xue J.L.
        • Himmelfarb J.
        • et al.
        Acute kidney injury increases the risk of ESRD among elderly.
        J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009; 20: 223-228
        • Stallone G.
        • Infante B.
        • Grandaliano G.
        Acute kidney injury in the elderly population.
        J Nephrol. 2012; 25: 58-66https://doi.org/10.5301/jn.5000140
        • Anderson S.
        • Eldadah B.
        • Halter J.B.
        • et al.
        Acute kidney injury in older adults.
        J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011; 22: 28-38
        • Weisberg L.S.
        Management of severe hyperkalemia.
        Crit Care Med. 2008; 36: 3246-3251
        • Khanna A.
        • White W.B.
        The management of hyperkalemia in patients with cardiovascular disease.
        Am J Med. 2009; 1223: 215-221
        • Mattu A.
        • Brady W.J.
        • Robinson D.A.
        Electrocardiographic manifestations of hyperkalemia.
        Am J Emerg Med. 2000; 18: 721-729
        • Martinez-Vea A.
        • Bardaji A.
        • Garcia C.
        • et al.
        Severe hyperkalemia with minimal electrocardiographic manifestations: a report of seven cases.
        J Electrocardiol. 1999; 32: 45-49
        • Kim H.J.
        • Han S.W.
        Therapeutic approach to hyperkalemia.
        Nephron. 2002; 92: 33-40
        • Ahee P.
        • Crowe A.C.
        The management of hyperkalaemia in the emergency department.
        J Accid Emerg Med. 2000; 17: 188-191
        • Kim H.J.
        Combined effect of bicarbonate and insulin with glucose in acute therapy of hyperkalemia in end-stage renal disease patients.
        Nephron. 1996; 72: 476-482
        • Allon M.
        • Dunlay R.
        • Copkney C.
        Nebulized albuterol for acute hyperkalemia in patients on hemodialysis.
        Ann Intern Med. 1989; 110: 426-429
        • Sterns R.H.
        • Rojas M.
        • Bernstein P.
        • et al.
        Ion-exchange resins for the treatment of hyperkalemia, are they safe and effective?.
        J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010; 21: 733-735
        • Kleinknecht D.
        • Ganeval D.
        • Gonzalez-Duque L.A.
        • et al.
        Furosemide in acute oliguric renal failure: a controlled trial.
        Nephron. 1976; 17: 51-58
        • Wen J.
        • Cheng Q.
        • Zhao J.
        • et al.
        Hospital-acquired acute kidney injury in Chinese very elderly persons.
        J Nephrol. 2012; https://doi.org/10.5301/jn.5000182
        • Liu K.D.
        • Himmelfarb J.
        • Paganini E.
        • et al.
        Timing of initiation of dialysis in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury.
        Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006; 1: 915
        • Seabra V.F.
        • Balk E.M.
        • Liangos O.
        • et al.
        Timing of renal replacement therapy initiation in acute renal failure: a meta-analysis.
        Am J Kidney Dis. 2008; 52: 272-284
        • Palevsky P.M.
        Renal replacement therapy I: indications and timing.
        Crit Care Clin. 2005; 21: 347-356
        • Techan G.S.
        • Llangos O.
        • Jaber B.L.
        Update on dialytic management of acute renal failure.
        J Intensive Care Med. 2003; 18: 130-138
        • Van de noortgate N.
        • Verbeke F.
        • Dhondt A.
        • et al.
        The dialytic management of acute renal failure in the elderly.
        Semin Dial. 2002; 15: 127-132
        • Somogyi-zalud E.
        • Zhong Z.
        • Hamel M.B.
        • et al.
        The use of life-sustaining treatments in hospitalized persons aged 80 and older.
        J Am Geriatr Soc. 2002; 50: 930-934